2018年03月17日 23:59:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:360助手
Samsung Electronics Co. said Saturday it plans to release its mobile payment system Samsung Pay in major markets, including China, next month, speeding up its efforts to expand the presence of the platform amid the rise of rivalry services.三星电子公司周六宣布,其移动付系统Samsung Pay将于下个月在包括中国在内的主要市场上线,以此在这一竞争中兴起的平台上加速扩大其务范围。Samsung Pay, first released in South Korea and the ed States last year, boasts around 5 million users.Samsung Pay去年在韩国和美国率先发布,目前大约拥有500万名用户。The South Korean tech giant said the service will kick off in China next month, adding that it is also preparing to launch in Australia, Brazil, Spain and a handful of other countries.这家韩国的科技巨头表示,这项务将于3月在中国上线,并准备在澳大利亚、巴西、西班牙等多个国家陆续推出。Samsung Pay supports magnetic secure transmission technology that works on traditional credit card machines. Like rivals Apple Pay and Android Pay, it also supports near field communication technology that requires a separate transaction device.Samsung Pay持传统信用卡设备使用的磁力安全传输技术,同时与竞争对手苹果付和安卓付一样持近场通讯技术。While the Samsung Pay platform was initially available for high-end smartphones, the company said it aims to have the service installed in its budget models as well, rolling out the Galaxy A5 and the Galaxy A7 last month.虽然Samsung Pay平台最初只持高端智能手机,但是三星方面表示,公司计划也将该务安装在其低端机型上,包括上个月刚刚推出的Galaxy A5和Galaxy A7。 /201602/427708Credit Suisse says its Asia Tech Team has confirmed that Apple#39;s has recently lowered its orders from suppliers, and that Apple now plans to build 70 million to 75 million iPhones in December and 45 million to 50 million iPhones in March..瑞士信贷表示,苹果的亚洲科技团队已确认,最近苹果已经削减了供应商的订单,并计划在12月生产7000万到7500万部手机,在明年3月生产4500万到5000万部手机。But a potential miniature iPhone, rumored to be released early next year, could help boost iPhones sales, Credit Suisse says in the report.瑞士信贷的报告中表示,传闻可能会在明年初发布的迷你手机,将有助于提升iPhone的销量。In a previous report, Credit Suisse blamed the softer demand for the iPhone 6S on the lack of apps that really take advantage of the phone#39;s new ;3D Touch; feature.在之前的报告里,瑞士信贷曾谴责6S需求减弱是由于缺乏能充分发挥它新的“3D触控”特色的应用。But not all is lost, Credit Suisse says: People who have iPhones tend to keep them, and Apple#39;s new iPhone installment plan program will put it into the hands of more people than ever before.但苹果6S也并非输的一塌糊涂,瑞士信贷称,那些拥有iPhone的人还是倾向于持有一台6S,并且苹果最新推出的分期付款计划,将会把它送到比以往任何时候都都要多的人群手中。Plus, if Apple follows through with the rumors and releases a smaller, lower-cost four-inch-screen iPhone in the first half of next year, Credit Suisse says, it could open up the market and make the device appealing to a larger audience.并且,如果恰如传闻那样,苹果公司能在2016年上半年发布一款更小巧,更低成本的4英寸手机,那么它将进一步打开市场,吸引更多的用户群体。And unlike what happened with Apple#39;s iPhone 5C flop, a smaller iPhone would be enough unlike the current flagship 6S that it wouldn#39;t confuse the market, according to the analysts.据分析专家称,新的迷你iPhone和曾经遭遇的失败的iPhone 5C不同,更完全有别于当前的旗舰6S,它不会引起苹果手机市场的混乱。 /201512/413654Apple and Samsung are in advanced talks to join the rest of the telecoms industry to launch electronic Sim cards, in a move could fundamentally change how consumers sign up to mobile operators.苹果(Apple)、三星(Samsung)已就与电信业其他同行一道推出电子SIM卡进入深入谈判阶段。此举可能会从根本上改变消费者与移动运营商签约的方式。The GSMA, the industry association which represents mobile operators worldwide, is close to announcing an agreement to produce a standardised embedded Sim for consumer devices that would include the smartphone makers.代表全世界移动运营商的行业协会——全球移动通信系统协会(GSMA)已接近公布一项协议,协议涉及的是生产一种面向消费者设备的标准化嵌入式SIM卡,智能手机生产商将参与其中。The traditional Sim card locks in the user to a network but an embedded Sim would enable a smartphone, tablet or wearable user to avoid locking themselves into a plan with a single operator or sign up to switch instantly.传统SIM卡将用户绑定在某个网络上,而嵌入式SIM卡将让智能手机、平板电脑或可穿戴设备的用户能够不再绑定在某一运营商的合约上,或者能够迅速切换运营商。Networks expected to support the plans include ATamp;T, Deutsche Telekom, Etisalat, Hutchison Whampoa, Orange, Telefónica and Vodafone.预计将持电子SIM卡计划的网络包括ATamp;T、德国电信(Deutsche Telekom)、Etisalat、和记黄埔(Hutchison Whampoa)、Orange、西班牙电信(Telefónica)和沃达丰(Vodafone)。Anne Bouverot, chief executive of the GSMA, said all parties were heading towards an agreement for the “common architecture”.GSMA总干事安妮布弗罗(Anne Bouverot)表示,各方正努力就“共同架构”达成协议。However, with any deal still contingent on finalising the technical specifications it will be at least a year before any devices supporting the electronic Sim reach the market.然而,考虑到达成协议还要取决于敲定技术规格,起码要等到一年之后才会有持电子SIM卡的设备上市。The GSMA said: “With the majority of operators on board, the plan is to finalise the technical architecture that will be used in the development of an end-to-end remote SIM solution for consumer devices, with delivery anticipated by 2016.”GSMA表示:“随着大多数运营商加入进来,现在的计划是敲定将用于消费者设备端对端远程SIM解决方案开发的技术架构,预计将在2016年交付。”Last year, Apple revealed its own Sim card for its latest iPads. However, it was supported by only a handful of operators such as T-Mobile and ATamp;T in the US, and just EE in the UK. Those familiar with its UK rollout said that it had not been widely adopted.去年,苹果披露了用于其最新iPad的自家SIM卡。然而,该卡只得到少数几家运营商的持,比如美国的T-Mobile和ATamp;T,以及英国的EE(仅此一家)。那些了解苹果SIM卡在英国推出情况的人士表示,该卡没有得到广泛采用。The electronic Sim is not expected to replace the Apple Sim, a piece of plastic that fits into a device and could be included in the next generation of iPhones.电子SIM卡预计不会取代苹果SIM卡。苹果SIM卡是一块能设备里的塑料片,可能会在下一代iPhone上使用。The GSMA said it was “continuing to work with Apple to secure their support for the initiative. While we are optimistic, a formal agreement with them is still in progress.”GSMA表示,它正“继续与苹果合作,以确保他们持这项倡议。尽管我们感到乐观,但与他们的正式协议仍在商谈当中。”Apple declined to comment.苹果拒绝置评。“We have got everyone back on one point, with Apple and Samsung agreeing to be part of that specification,” said Ms Bouverot. “We have been working with them and others to create an industry solution for machines and will agree a solution for consumer electronics.”“我们已把所有人都拉回到一点上,苹果和三星同意参与制定技术规格。”布弗罗表示,“我们一直在与他们以及其他人合作,以求创建一个针对机器的行业解决方案,我们还将就一项针对消费电子产品的解决方案达成一致。” /201507/386338

The other day the Financial Times reported that Apple wants to disable its own access to the iCloud, thus making it impossible for the company to comply with legal warrants for customer data. You could reframe this goal: America’s most valuable company is looking for technical fixes that will allow it to defy the elected politicians, law enforcement bodies and judges responsible for the nation’s security. If Apple does not like a law, it will invent some computer coding to circumvent it. 近日英国《金融时报》报道,苹果(Apple)打算禁用其自身对iCloud的访问,这将使该公司无法遵从要求获取用户数据的法庭令。你可以重新描述一下这个目标:美国最有价值的公司正在寻求作出技术调整,使其能够违抗对国家安全负有责任的民选政治人士、执法部门和法官。如果苹果不喜欢某项法律,它将发明一些计算机代码来绕过它。 Tim Cook would probably not put it quite like that. Yet the Apple chief executive has elevated his fight with the Federal Bureau of Investigation over access to an iPhone belonging to one of the shooters in the San Bernardino terrorist outrage into a struggle between liberty and tyranny, privacy and intrusion. 蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)很可能不会这么说,然而这位苹果首席执行官已将他与美国联邦调查局(FBI)就解锁圣贝纳迪诺(San Bernardino)恐怖暴行中一名手的iPhone的争执,上升为自由和暴政、隐私和侵犯之争。 Mr Cook says that to accede to the FBI’s request that Apple write a piece of code to permit access to data on the phone would be to create “the software equivalent of cancer”. Hundreds of millions of customers would be put at risk. “This is not about one phone,” he told A News, “this is about the future.” 库克表示,听从FBI的要求编写一段代码以访问那部手机上的数据,就像是编写“等同于癌症的软件”。数亿用户将被置于危险之中。“这关乎的不是一部手机,”他告诉美国广播公司(A News),“这关乎未来。” A victory for the FBI would threaten “everyone’s civil liberties”. This is vaulting language from the chief executive of a company that, when all is said and done, is in the business of making luxury-end digital gadgets. Apple is innovative. Its products look nice. But civilisation would survive the absence of iPads and iPhones. FBI的胜利将威胁“每个人的公民自由”。这是这家公司首席执行官的夸大之词,而它说到底不过是一家生产高端数码产品的公司。苹果很有创新性。它的产品看起来很棒。但就算没有iPad和iPhone,文明也会存续下去。 The FBI says that the San Bernardino case is sui generis. It is not asking Apple to hand over any coding and the company can destroy the code once the handset is accessed. Mr Cook’s motives, it suggests, are not entirely altruistic. In the wake of the Edward Snowden leaks, Apple has seen privacy and encryption as powerful marketing tools. Unfashionable as it may be post-Snowden, I tend to agree with the FBI that the natural tension between privacy and national security “should not be resolved by corporations that sell stuff”. FBI表示,圣贝纳迪诺案是个特例。FBI不会要求苹果交出任何代码,该公司可以在解锁那部手机后立即销毁代码。FBI认为,库克的动机并非完全出于利他主义。在爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)泄密事件后,苹果将隐私和加密视为强有力的营销工具。虽然在后斯诺登时代这么说可能有点不够时髦,但我倾向于认同FBI的说法:隐私和国家安全之间的天然紧张关系“不应该由一家卖东西的公司来解决”。 Apple sets itself apart from the tech pack — Mr Cook often accuses the rest of harvesting and selling personal data — but on this issue the company has won the backing of most of Silicon Valley. Apple and Google have also been joined by Facebook, Twitter and Microsoft in lining up on the other side of the Atlantic against a planned British law to codify the state’s access to data. 苹果将自身超脱于科技行业之外——库克经常指责其他科技公司获取和贩卖个人信息——但在这次的问题上,苹果赢得了大多数硅谷企业的持。在大西洋的另一边,Facebook、Twitter和微软(Microsoft)加入了苹果和谷歌(Google)的行列,反对英国计划出台的一项将政府对数据的访问权写入法律的法案。 As in the San Bernardino case, the companies say the UK government is seeking “back doors” into their technology that would undermine security for customers. They argue that the British law would set a precedent for authoritarian states. I am not sure that President Vladimir Putin has ever waited for Britain to take the lead before brushing aside personal freedoms and data privacy in the name of the Russian state. 就像在圣贝纳迪诺案中一样,这些公司表示,英国政府在寻求侵入它们的技术的“后门”,这会削弱用户安全。它们认为英国的这项法律将为威权国家树立先例。但我很怀疑,弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)以俄罗斯国家之名把个人自由和数据隐私抛到一边之前,曾等过英国来带头。 It is perfectly proper and legitimate, of course, for Mr Cook to challenge the FBI in the US courts and there is nothing to say that technology companies should not lobby, like any business, against laws they do not like. He is right, also, that there is a vital debate to be had about the proper balance between personal privacy and collective security. 当然,库克在美国法庭上挑战FBI是完全正当合法的,科技公司像其他任何公司一样为反对它们不喜欢的法律而游说,这种行为也无可非议。库克声称应该就个人隐私和集体安全间的合理平衡进行一场关键辩论,这也是正确的。 In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the pendulum probably swung too far in the direction of law enforcement and intelligence agencies. At the very least there was insufficient transparency about the extent to which governments had adapted to the digital age by accessing — then, incidentally, with the willing co-operation of Apple and others — personal communications and data. Tighter oversight was necessary. 在“9/11”恐怖袭击以后,平衡很可能朝着执法和情报机构的方向移动得太远了。至少关于政府已在多大程度上通过访问个人通信和信息——顺便一提当时是在苹果和其他公司愿意合作的情况下——来适应数字时代,透明度还不够。更严格的监管必不可少。 Mr Snowden’s revelations risk shifting the balance too far in the opposite direction. Civil libertarians might say otherwise but the storage of metadata does not amount to digital mass surveillance. What matters are the conditions under which such data can be searched — the safeguards, legal authority and reporting responsibilities that militate against misuse of personal information while allowing the state to protect its citizens. 斯诺登的泄密可能又使平衡朝着相反的方向移动得太远。推崇公民自由的人士或者会说并非如此,但存储元数据并不等同于数字化大规模监控。重要的是在什么情况下这些数据可以被搜索——设置什么样的保护措施、法律授权和汇报职责来阻止个人信息被滥用,同时使国家能够保护其公民。 My guess is that there is no perfect balance and even if there was, it would probably be overtaken soon enough by newer technology. Intelligence agencies will always want too much access, while civil libertarians, and nowadays the tech companies, will stand at the other extreme. The best that politicians can do is update the frameworks and ensure that the courts have effective oversight. 我猜想,不存在完美的平衡,就算真的有,也很有可能在短时间内被更新的科技压倒。情报机构总是希望拥有过多的访问权限,而公民自由人士和当今的科技公司则站在另一个极端。政治人士所能做的最好的事情就是更新法律框架,确保法庭能进行有效的监管。 Mr Cook seems to think Apple can stand above such a democratic process. If it loses the argument, it will find a way around the law. Apple is not alone. To listen to Google, Facebook and the rest is to hear corporations that have come to believe their own propaganda: as custodians of the digital future, theirs is a higher calling that should grant them immunity from the meddling of courts or the judgments of elected politicians. 库克似乎认为苹果能够立于这个民主过程之上。如果苹果在论战中失败,它将找到绕过法律的办法。苹果并不是唯一这样认为的公司。听听谷歌、Facebook和其他公司的说辞,你会感到这些公司已经开始相信自身的宣传:作为数字化未来的守护者,它们拥有更为高尚的使命,这应该允许它们不受法庭干预、不受民选政治人士的评判。 The inflated sense of self-worth is not confined to the realm of privacy. It explains the indignation with which the companies greet demands that they pay a fair share of corporate tax. For Mr Cook it is the US government’s fault that Apple shelters tens of billions of dollars in offshore tax havens. Google seems genuinely shocked when British politicians take umbrage at the way it shuffles off to low-tax Ireland billions of dollars in profits made on its UK sales. 这种膨胀的自我价值感不仅限于隐私领域。这解释了这些企业在有关部门要求它们缴纳合理份额的企业税时的愤愤不平。对库克而言,苹果将数百亿美元藏在海外避税港是美国政府的错。在英国政治人士愤慨于谷歌将其在英国销售所得的数十亿美元利润转移到税率较低的爱尔兰时,谷歌似乎真的很震惊。 For all Mr Cook’s messianism, the tech giants are in business to make money. They have a valid point of view — just like everyone else. But, no, Silicon Valley does not inhabit a higher plane, and Apple’s profits should not trump democratic choices about security. 尽管库克摆出了救世主的姿态,但这些科技巨头做这行是为了赚钱。它们的观点很合理——就像其他任何人一样。但是,不,硅谷并不占据更高的层面,苹果的利润也不应该凌驾于有关安全的民主选择之上。 /201603/431102

JD.com has challenged China ecommerce rival Alibaba with the launch of a cross-border platform designed to bring foreign brands to the Chinese middle class.中国电商集团京东(JD.com)向国内竞争对手阿里巴巴(Alibaba)发出挑战,推出了一个旨在为中国中产阶层带来国外品牌的跨境网购平台。The platform, JD Worldwide, highlights the eagerness of US groups to enter the ecommerce market in China, which is dominated by local participants.京东全球购(JD Worldwide)平台凸显了美国企业对进入由本土企业主导的中国电子商务市场的渴望。JD Worldwide enables international businesses to sell directly to China consumers without needing to establish a legal presence on the mainland, lowering the barriers to entry for brands.京东全球购使国际企业能够直接面向中国消费者进行销售,不需要在中国内地设立法律实体,降低了品牌准入的壁垒。The cross-border platform includes the launch of an eBay store that allows Chinese shoppers to buy goods from US eBay sellers.这一跨境网购平台包括了“eBay海外精选”频道的上线,可以让中国消费者向美国eBay卖家购买商品。US group eBay was an early leader in China’s ecommerce sector but has lost out to fierce competition from Alibaba, which dominates the local market.美国在线零售商eBay在中国电商行业发展初期处于领先地位,但在与阿里巴巴的激烈竞争中败下阵来,后者在中国市场占据了主导地位。The competition with eBay prompted Jack Ma, Alibaba’s chairman, to quip: “Ebay may be a shark in the ocean, but I am a crocodile in the Yangtze. If we fight in the ocean, we lose, but if we fight in the river, we win.”对于与eBay的竞争,阿里巴巴集团董事局主席马云(Jack Ma)曾诙谐地说:“eBay是海洋中的鲨鱼,而我们是长江中的扬子鳄。如果在海洋中对抗,我们将会失败。但如果在长江里对抗,我们将取得胜利。”Ebay’s strategy to get back into the Chinese market with the help of more established local brands such as JD.com follows last month’s move by Amazon to open a store on Alibaba’s Tmall sales website.Ebay借助京东这样的较成熟本土品牌重回中国市场并非首开先河,上月,亚马逊(Amazon)就入驻了阿里巴巴旗下的天猫商城(Tmall)。JD.com, backed by Alibaba arch-rival Tencent, said of yesterday’s platform launch: “Ebay’s channel on JD Worldwide will showcase a variety of top categories and popular brands.”京东得到阿里巴巴主要竞争对手腾讯(Tencent)的持。对于昨日平台上线,京东表示:“京东全球购平台的ebay频道将展示种类繁多的优质商品和流行品牌。”JD.com is the largest Amazon-like direct sales ecommerce seller in China, boasting its own distribution and logistics network, though Alibaba dominates the local industry intraffic numbers.京东是中国最大的类似亚马逊的直销电商,拥有独立的配送和物流网络,但在交易额上阿里巴巴是行业领军者。 /201504/370422

On an glacier-filled island with fjords and elephant seals, Russia has built Antarctica’s first Orthodox church on a hill overlooking its research base, transporting the logs all the way from Siberia.在一个满布冰川、有峡湾与海象的岛屿上,俄罗斯用远从西伯利亚运来的木材,在一座小山上建造了南极洲第一座东正教堂,山下就是该国的科研基地。Less than an hour away by snowmobile, Chinese laborers have updated the Great Wall Station, a linchpin in China’s plan to operate five bases on Antarctica, complete with an indoor badminton court, domes to protect satellite stations and sleeping quarters for 150 people.在离此地一小时托雪橇车程的地方,中国工人对长城站进行了翻建,该国计划在南极设立五个科学考察站,长城站是其中的关键。站内设有室内羽球场和保护卫星站的圆拱屋顶,还有能容纳150人的卧室。Not to be outdone, India’s futuristic new Bharathi base, built on stilts using 134 interlocking shipping containers, resembles a spaceship. Turkey and Iran have announced plans to build bases, too.印度人也不甘示弱。他们新建的巴拉蒂基地(Bharathi)十分前卫,由134个货柜扣接而成,然后用柱撑起,形似一艘太空船。土耳其和伊朗业已宣布在南极建造基地的计划。More than a century has passed since explorers raced to plant their flags at the bottom of the world, and for decades to come this continent is supposed to be protected as a scientific preserve, shielded from intrusions like military activities and mining.一百多年来,探险家争先恐后地在这世界的尽头插上自己的旗帜。 而在接下来数十年,人们本应把这片大陆当做一个科学保护区来呵护,避免它受到诸如军事行动和矿产开发等活动的干扰。But an array of countries are rushing to assert greater influence here, with an eye not just toward the day those protective treaties expire, but also for the strategic and commercial opportunities that exist right now.然而众多国家正纷纷行动起来,要对这里施加更多的影响力。他们一边注意那些保护条约何时到期,一边还要盯着眼下就存在的战略与商业良机。“The newer players are stepping into what they view as a treasure house of resources,” said Anne-Marie Brady, a scholar at New Zealand’s University of Canterbury who specializes in Antarctic politics.“新近加入竞争的国家,踏入的是他们视为天然资源聚宝盆的一块地方,”安妮-玛莉·布雷迪(Anne-Marie Brady)表示;她是新西兰坎特伯雷大学(University of Canterbury)专研南极政治问题的学者。Some of the ventures focus on the Antarctic resources that are aly up for grabs, like abundant sea life. China and South Korea, both of which operate state-of-the-art bases here, are ramping up their fishing of krill, the shrimplike crustaceans found in abundance in the Southern Ocean, while Russia recently thwarted efforts to create one of the world’s largest ocean sanctuaries here.有的是看上了南极现成可用的天然资源,譬如大量的海洋生物。在这里设有尖端基地的中国和韩国都在迅速提升他们的磷虾渔获量。这是一种形似虾的甲壳动物,大量存在于南冰洋中。而俄罗斯近来刚刚出面阻挠了在这里设立全球最大禁渔区的努力。Some scientists are examining the potential for harvesting icebergs from Antarctica, which is estimated to have the biggest reserves of fresh water on the planet. Nations are also pressing ahead with space research and satellite projects to expand their global navigation abilities.有些科学家正在审视从南极采收冰山的潜力。根据估计,这些冰山蕴含了全世界最大的淡水储备。各国也同时在太空研究和卫星计划上加紧向前,好拓展他们探勘全球的能力。Building on a Soviet-era foothold, Russia is expanding its monitoring stations for Glonass, its version of the Global Positioning System. At least three Russian stations are aly operating in Antarctica, part of its effort to challenge the dominance of the American GPS, and new stations are planned for sites like the Russian base, in the shadow of the Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity.俄罗斯正在以一个苏联时代的驻扎点为基础,为他们的格洛纳斯系统(Glonass)拓建观测站,这是该国自行开发的全球卫星定位系统。在南极已经有至少三个俄罗斯的观测站在运作,以挑战美国的GPS系统。而其他一些地点,比如圣三一东正教堂(Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity)荫庇下的俄罗斯基地,也有新建观测站的计划。Elsewhere in Antarctica, Russian researchers boast of their recent discovery of a freshwater reserve the size of Lake Ontario after drilling through miles of solid ice.在南极洲另一处地方,俄罗斯研究人员自豪地宣告,他们在钻透数英里厚的坚硬冰层后,发现了容量可比安大略湖的淡水库。“You can see that we’re here to stay,” said Vladimir Cheberdak, 57, chief of the Bellingshausen Station, as he sipped tea under a portrait of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, an officer and later admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy who explored the Antarctic coast in 1820.“你可以看到,我们在这里是扎了根了,”57岁的别林斯高晋站站长弗拉基米尔·切贝尔达克(Vladimir Cheberdak)一边喝着茶一边说,他的头顶悬挂着法比安·戈特利布·冯·别林斯高晋(Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen)的肖像,这位已故俄罗斯皇家海军上将在1820年探索了南极洲的海岸线。Antarctica’s mineral, oil and gas wealth are a longer-term prize. The treaty banning mining here, shielding coveted reserves of iron ore, coal and chromium, expires in 2048. Researchers recently found kimberlite deposits hinting at the existence of diamonds. And while assessments vary widely, geologists estimate that Antarctica holds at least 36 billion barrels of oil and natural gas.南极洲富藏的矿、石油和天然气则是一项长期回报。前述条约禁止各国在此地采矿,护卫着众人垂涎的铁、煤、铬矿脉,不过这份条约会在2048年到期。研究人员近来还发现了金伯利岩层,暗示着钻石矿脉的存在。此外,虽然各家评估结果大不相同,但地质学家预测,南极洲蕴藏了至少3600万桶的石油和天然气。Beyond the Antarctic treaties, huge obstacles persist to tapping these resources, like drifting icebergs that could imperil offshore platforms. Then there is Antarctica’s remoteness, with some mineral deposits found in windswept locations on a continent that is larger than Europe and where winter temperatures hover around minus 70 Fahrenheit.除南极条约外,利用这些资源还存在其他巨大的障碍,如漂浮的冰山可能会危及海上平台。此外,南极位置偏僻。在这个面积超过欧洲,冬季气温在零下70华氏度(约合零下57摄氏度)左右徘徊的大陆上,有几处矿藏位于极为荒凉的地带。But advances in technology might make Antarctica a lot more accessible three decades from now. And even before then, scholars warn, the demand for resources in an energy-hungry world could raise pressure to renegotiate Antarctica’s treaties, possibly allowing more commercial endeavors here well before the prohibitions against them expire.但30年后的技术进步可能会大大降低开发南极的难度。而学者警告称,可能都等不到那个时候,这个渴望能源的世界所产生的资源需求,就会促使人们就南极条约重新展开谈判,也许会在禁令失效前就允许对这里进行商业利用。The research stations on King George Island offer a glimpse into the long game on this ice-blanketed continent as nations assert themselves, eroding the sway long held by countries like the ed States, Britain, Australia and New Zealand.随着各国坚持自己的主张,削弱美国、英国、澳大利亚和新西兰等国长期以来的影响力,这片被冰雪覆盖的大陆上演了一场历时弥久的竞争。乔治王岛上的科考站让人们得以一窥这场竞争。Being stationed in Antarctica involves adapting to life on the planet’s driest, windiest and coldest continent, yet each nation manages to make itself at home.被派驻南极意味着要在全世界最干燥、最冷、风最大的大陆上生活,但各国过得都挺惬意。Bearded Russian priests offer regular services at the Orthodox church for the 16 or so Russian speakers who spend the winter at the base, largely polar scientists in fields like glaciology and meteorology. Their number climbs to about 40 in the warmer summer months.蓄着胡子的俄罗斯神父会定期在东正教堂为在基地过冬的大约16名说俄语的人举行仪式。他们大部分是冰川学和气象学等领域的极地科学家。在更暖和一些的夏季,人数会增加到大约40人。China has arguably the fastest-growing operations in Antarctica. It opened its fourth station last year and is pressing ahead with plans to build a fifth. It is building its second icebreaking ship and setting up research drilling operations on an ice dome 13,422 feet above sea level that is one of the planet’s coldest places.中国在南极的活动可以说是增加最快的。该国去年启用了第四个科考站,现在正在推进修建第五个科考站的计划。此外,中国还在建造第二艘破冰船,并安排在一处海拔13422英尺(约合4100米)的冰穹上进行研究性的钻井作业。那里是全球最冷的地方之一。Chinese officials say the expansion in Antarctica prioritizes scientific research, but they also acknowledge that concerns about “resource security” influence their moves.中国官员称,在南极扩张的首要目的是科学考察,但他们也承认,对“资源安全”的担忧对他们的行动有影响。China’s newly renovated Great Wall station on King George Island makes the Russian and Chilean bases here seem antiquated.在乔治王岛上,中国新近翻建的长城站让俄罗斯和智利的基地相形见绌。“We do weather monitoring here and other research,” Ning Xu, 53, the chief of the Chinese base, said over tea during a fierce blizzard in late November.在11月末的一场强暴风雪期间,长城站站长徐宁喝着茶说,“我们在这里进行天气监测和其他研究。”The cavernous base he leads resembles a snowed-in college campus on holiday break, with the capacity to sleep more than 10 times the 13 people who were staying on through the Antarctic winter.他领导的长城站内有巨大的空间,像一个放假期间被雪封住了的大学校园。在南极的这个冬天会有13个人留在这里。但该站的空间足以容纳10倍以上的人过夜。Yong Yu, a Chinese microbiologist, showed off the spacious building, with empty desks under an illustrated timeline detailing the rapid growth of China’s Antarctic operations since the 1980s. “We now feel equipped to grow,” he said.微生物学家余勇(音)向我们展示宽敞的大楼。一个图文并茂的大事年表详细介绍了自80年代以来,中国南极活动的迅速发展。年表下面的桌子上空无一物。“我们觉得现在是时候发展了,”他说。As some countries expand operations in Antarctica, the ed States maintains three year-round stations on the continent with more than 1,000 people during the Southern Hemisphere’s summer, including those at the Amundsen-Scott station, built in 1956 at an elevation of 9,301 feet on a plateau at the South Pole. But American researchers quietly grumble about budget restraints and having far fewer icebreakers than Russia, limiting the reach of the ed States in Antarctica.在一些国家扩大其南极活动的同时,美国在这片大陆上依旧保持着三个全年运转的科考站规模。在南半球的夏季,这三个站有逾千人,其中包括阿蒙森-斯科特(Amundsen-Scott)站的人员。建于1956年的阿蒙森-斯科特站地处南极的一片高原上,海拔9301英尺。然而美国科考人员私下里抱怨预算紧张,破冰船也远少于俄罗斯,这些问题制约了美国在南极的影响力。Scholars warn that Antarctica’s political flux could blur the distinction between military and civilian activities long before the continent’s treaties come up for renegotiation, especially in parts of Antarctica that are ideal for intercepting signals from satellites or retasking satellite systems, potentially enhancing global electronic intelligence operations.学者告诫称,南极的政治力量变化可能会在就南极条约重新展开谈判之前,模糊军事和民用活动之间的界线,特别是在最适合用于拦截卫星信号或重新设定卫星经过时间的地区,这可能给全球电子情报活动带来提升。Some countries have had a hard time here. Brazil opened a research station in 1984, but it was largely destroyed by a fire that killed two members of the navy in 2012, the same year that a diesel-laden Brazilian barge sank near the base. As if that were not enough, a Brazilian C-130 Hercules military transport plane has remained stranded near the runway of Chile’s air base here since it crash-landed in 2014.一些国家在这里十分不顺。巴西在1984年设立了一个科考站,但2012年的一场大火导致该站基本被毁,并造成两名海军人员死亡。同一年,巴西一艘满载柴油的驳船在该基地附近沉没。然而厄运还没有结束,2014年,巴西一架C-130大力神军用运输机紧急迫降后,一直被困在这里的一座智利空军基地跑道附近。Still, Brazil’s stretch of misfortune has created opportunities for China, with a Chinese company winning the 0 million contract in 2015 to rebuild the Brazilian station.但巴西一连串的不幸给中国创造了机会。2015年,一家中国公司拿下了重建巴西科考站的合同,价值1亿美元。Amid all the changes, Antarctica maintains its allure. South Korea opened its second Antarctic research base in 2014, describing it as a way to test robots developed by Korean researchers for use in extreme conditions. With Russia’s help, Belarus is preparing to build its first Antarctic base. Colombia said this year that it planned to join other South American nations with bases in Antarctica.经历了这一切的变化,南极魅力依旧。2014年,韩国开设第二个南极科考站,称其将用于检验韩国研究人员开发的用于极端条件的机器人。在俄罗斯的帮助下,白俄罗斯也在准备修建该国的第一个南极基地。哥伦比亚今年表示打算加入其他一些南美国家的行列,在南极建立科考站。“The old days of the Antarctic being dominated by the interests and wishes of white men from European, Australasian and North American states is over,” said Klaus Dodds, a politics scholar at the University of London who specializes in Antarctica. “The reality is that Antarctica is geopolitically contested.”“在以前,南极被欧洲、澳大拉西亚和北美诸国的白人利益和意愿主宰,”伦敦大学(University of London)专研南极问题的政治学者克劳斯·多兹(Klaus Dodds)说。“眼下的现实是,南极成了地缘政治上的争夺目标。” /201601/419759

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